Antibacterial Power of Nano Brown Anchovy (<i>Stolephorus insularis</i>) Against Mixed Bacteria in Deep Dentin Caries


Tamara Yuanita
Shafa Marwa Moza Paramitha
Arinda Sitania Mustamu


Background: Biodentin is a pulp capping material that has perfected the shortcomings of Ca(OH)2, but has low radiopacity and lower washing out resistance, so it is hoped that there will be natural ingredients that can be used as pulp capping materials. The nano brown anchovy has antibacterial content in the form of fluoride. Its nano size can also facilitate penetration better. Purpose: Analyzing the antibacterial potency of nano brown anchovy on mixed bacteria in deep carious dentine. Methods: The research was conducted in an experimental laboratory in vitro with a post-test only control group design. Brown anchovy was converted into nanoparticles then diluted into several concentrations using the broth dilution method. Direct contact method was used between nano anchovy and various concentrations of bacteria. The values of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bacterial Concentration) were obtained by counting the number of bacterial colonies growing on Mueller Hinton Agar media. Colony growth was calculated manually in Colony Forming Units (CFU). Data were analysed by One Way Anova test followed by a Tukey HSD test. Results: The MIC value at a concentration of 0.781% and the MBC value at a concentration of 1.56%. In positive control, there was an average bacterial death of 0%, a concentration of 0.781% had an average bacterial death of 91%, and at a concentration of 1.56% the average bacterial death was 100%. The results showed that the greater the concentration of nano anchovy, the stronger the antibacterial power. Conclusion: There is antibacterial potency in nano brown anchovy against Mixed Bacteria in deep dentin caries lesions.


How to Cite
Yuanita, T., Paramitha, S. M. M., Mustamu, A. S., & Sukaton. (2023). Antibacterial Power of Nano Brown Anchovy (<i>Stolephorus insularis</i>) Against Mixed Bacteria in Deep Dentin Caries. International Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences, 12(1), 2057–2062.


  1. Sulistianingsih S, Irmaleny I and Hidayat OP. The remineralization potential of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean extract to increase the enamel micro hardness. Padjadjaran J Dent. 2017; 29(2):107-12. DOI:
  2. Kroon J, Lalloo R, Tadakamadla SK and Johnson NW. Dental caries experience in children of a remote Australian Indigenous community following passive and active preventive interventions. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2019; 47(6):470-6. PMid: 31328295 PMCid: PMC6899803. DOI:
  3. Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Laporan Riskesdas. Lap NasRIskesdas 2018 [Internet]. 2018; 53(9):181-222. No. 57 Tahun 2013 tentang PTRM.pdf
  4. Yadav K and Prakash S. Dental Caries: A Review. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016.
  5. Deveci C, Çınar C and Tirali RE. Management of White Spot Lesions. Dent Caries – Diagnosis. Prev Manag. 2018. DOI:
  6. Dhaimy S, Hoummadi A and Nadifi S. The success of pulp revascularization in pregnant women: A literature review. J Clin Mol Pathol. 2019; 3:19.
  7. Hilton TJ, Ferracane JL and Mancl L. Comparison of CaOH with MTA for Direct Pulp Capping: A PBRN Randomized Clinical Trial. J Dent Res. 2013; 92(July 2013):S16–22. PMid: 23690353 PMCid: PMC3706175. DOI:
  8. Goldberg M. Central indirect and direct pulp capping: Reactionary vs. Reparative Dentins. JSM Dent. 2020; 8(1):1119. DOI:
  9. Jacob A, Parolia A, Pau A and Davamani Amalraj F. The effects of Malaysian propolis and Brazilian red propolis on connective tissue fibroblasts in the wound healing process. BMC Complement Altern Med [Internet]. 2015; 15(1):1- 10. PMid: 26303848 PMCid: PMC4549008. DOI:
  10. Malkondu O, Kazandag MK and Kazazoglu E. A review on biodentine, a contemporary dentine replacement and repair material. Biomed Res Int. 2014. PMid: 25025034 PMCid: PMC4082844. DOI:
  11. A. Saberi E, Farhadmollashahi N, Ghotbi F, Karkeabadi H and Havaei R. Cytotoxic effects of mineral trioxide aggregate, calcium enriched mixture cement, Biodentine and octacalcium phosphate on human gingival fibroblasts. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2016; 10(2):75- 80. PMid: 27429722 PMCid: PMC4946003. DOI:
  12. Budi FS, Herawati D, Purnomo J, Sehabudin U, Sulistiono and Nugroho T. Peningkatan Kualitas dan Diversifikasi Produk Ikan Teri untuk Pemberdayaan Masyarakat di Desa Saramaake, Halmahera Timur. Agrokreatif J Ilm PengabdiKpdMasy. 2017; 3(2):89. DOI:
  13. Perikanan DK dan. StatistikPerikananTangkap. 2011.
  14. SIDATIK. Sistem InformasiDiseminasi Data dan StatistikKelautan dan Perikanan [Internet]. 2016.
  15. Syah Putri G and Nurlatifah Zakaria M. Ikan Teri (Stolephorus spp.) Sebagai Bahan Pencegah Gigi Berlubang. Med Kartika J Kedokt dan Kesehat. PIT X 2018; 90-101. DOI:
  16. Faizah A, Wardani I and Soesilo D. The effectiveness of anchovy concentration (Stolephorus insularis) as Antimicrobial to Streptococcus mutans (in vitro). J Kedokt Gigi Dent. 2016; 10(1). DOI:
  17. Ulfah, Uly Aulia and Musfiroh I. Aplikasi Teknologi Nanopartikel Polimer Eter Selulosa dalam Sistem Penghantaran Obat: Artikel Review. Farmaka Suplemen. 2018; 14(No 1 (2016)):191-202.
  18. Tamer M. Hamdy. Application of Nanotechnology in Dental Caries Management. EC Dent Sci. 2017; 161:52-5.
  19. Mingsheng M, Yilin W, Yiqing L, Wenjun W and Yongxiang L. Effect of ball mill method on microstructure and electrical properties of BaTiO3 based PTCR ceramics. Ceramics International. 2015; 41(1):S804-S808. DOI:
  20. Liao Y, Brandt BW, Li J, Crielaard W, Van Loveren C and Deng DM. Fluoride resistance in Streptococcus mutans: A mini review. J Oral Microbiol [Internet]. 2017; 9(1). PMid: 28748043 PMCid: PMC5508371. DOI:
  21. Harso A. Nanopartikel dan Dampaknya Bagi Kesehatan Manusia. J Ilm Din Sains. 2020; 20-6.
  22. Love RM and Jenkinson HF. Invasion of dentinal tubules by oral bacteria. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2002; 13(2):171-83. PMid: 12097359. DOI: