Study on Gender Specific Variability of Non-Motor Symptoms Including Cardiovascular, Sexual Disorders, Apathy, Hallucinations, Sleep Disorders and Some Miscellaneous Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease


Anuradha Dehiya
Sarabjeet Singh Rai


Introduction: Parkinson’s disease is a second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease. It affects 1% of population over age of 50 years. Non-Motor symptoms are common in patients of Parkinson’s disease. These remain undiagnosed most of the time. Aim and Objectives: To analyse gender specific, age related and demographic variability of non-motor symptoms (Cardiovascular symptoms, sleep disorder, hallucination, sexual disorders, apathy, pain and miscellaneous symptoms) of Parkinson’s disease. Materials and Methods: Present study included 100 cases (66 males and 34 females) of Parkinson’s disease presenting at department of neurology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana. 30 questionnaires of non-motor symptoms in Hindi and Punjabi were given to patients. Gender, age, duration of non-motor symptoms, Parkinson’s phenotype and complete demographic profile of each patient taken into account for study. Thereafter result were statistically analysed for all parameters. Conclusion: It is concluded that mean age and duration of non-motor symptoms were higher in males as compared to females. It was calculated that there was positive correlation of H&Y with age and non-motor symptoms like Cardiovascular, Sleep related disorder, apathy, pain and miscellaneous symptoms. As H&Y increases there is increase in frequency and severity of symptoms. There was difference in dominant non-motor symptoms among different genders. Sexual dysfunction and sleep disorders were more prominent in males whereas cardiovascular and miscellaneous like excessive sweating were more in females.


How to Cite
Dehiya, A., & Rai, S. S. (2020). Study on Gender Specific Variability of Non-Motor Symptoms Including Cardiovascular, Sexual Disorders, Apathy, Hallucinations, Sleep Disorders and Some Miscellaneous Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease. International Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences, 9(1), 1851–1858.


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